# Splitting a Poisson Process: M/G/Infinity Queue

## 1. Notation

• M: “Markovian” or “Memoryless” arrival process (i.e., Poisson Process)
• G: General service time (not necessarily exponential)
• : Infinite number of servers
Let
• be the number of customers who have completed service by time t
• be the number of customers who are being served at time t
• be the total number of customers who have arrived by time t

## 2. Splitting the arrival process

• Fix a reference time T.
• Consider the process of customers arriving prior to time T.
• A customer arriving at time is
• Type I: if service is completed before T
• occur with probability
• Type-II: if customer still is service at time T
• occur with probability
Since arrival times and services times are all independent, the type assignments are independent. Therefore,
• is a Poisson random variable with mean .
• is a Poisson random variable with mean
• and are independent
What happens when
• for large t. Therefore, is a Poisson random variable with mean
• is a Poisson random variable with mean
Summary: Number of customers in service in an queue, in steady state, is a Poisson random variable with mean .

# Compound Poisson Process (CPP)

## 1. Definition:

Remove the restriction that two or more customers cannot arrive at the same time, (i.e., remove orderliness property)

Let be a Poisson Process with rate , and let be the i.i.d random variable, then is a compound Poisson process

Example #1: Buses arrive according to a Poisson process. Let be the number of people on bus i, and let be the total number of people arriving by time t.

Example #2: Insurance claims arrive according to a Poisson process. Let be the size of the claim (in dollars), and let be the total amount due to all claims by time t.

Since , i.e.,
So

## 3. Variance:

var[X(t)] = var[E[X(t)|N(t)]] + E[var[X(t)|N(t)]]
and we have
or .
So
=
=
=
=

# Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NPHH)

## 1. Properties:

• N(0) = 0
• N(t) has independent increments
Notes:
• This is like a Poisson process, without the stationary assumption
A process with the above properties is a NHPP with intensity (or rate) function

## 2. Definition:

The mean value function (for a NHPP) is

## 3. Key Properties:

• For a NHPP, N(s+t) – N(s) is a Poisson random variable with mean

# The Poisson Process

## 1. Priliminary Definitions

Def : A stochastic process is a collection of random variable (RV) indexed by time .

• If T is continuous set, the process is a continuous time stochastic process (e.g., Poisson Process)
• If T is countable, then the process is a discrete time stochastic process (e.g., Markov chain)
Def. A counting process is a stochastic process such that
• (that is, N(t) is non-negative integer)
• If , the ( that is, N(t) is non-decreasing in t)
• For , is the number of events occurring in the time interval .

Def: A counting process has stationary increments if the distribution of the number of events in an interval depends on the length of the interval, but not on the starting point of the interval. That is, does not depend on s. Intuitively, the interval can be “slide” around without changing its stochastic nature.

## 2. Definition of Poisson Process

Definition 1: A Poisson process is a counting process with rate , if:

• N(0) = 0;
• The Process has independent increments
• The number of events in any interval of length t is a Poisson RV with mean .
That is, for all and
.

Definition 2: A Poisson process is a counting process with rate if

1. N(0) = 0
2. The process has stationary increments
3. The process has independent increments
4. (# of events approximately proportional to the length of interval)
5. (can’t have 2 or more events at the same time — “orderliness”)
Eliminating of individual assumptions yields variations on the Poisson process
• Eliminate assumption 2, Non-stationary Poisson Process
• Eliminate assumption 3, Mixture of Poisson Process (choose randomly, then run a Poisson process)
• Eliminate assumption 5, compound Poisson Process
Definition 3: A Poisson process with rate is a counting process such that times between events are i.i.d distribution exp()

3. Conditional Distribution of Event Times

# The Poisson Distribution

## 1. Definition of Poisson Random Variable

Def: A Poisson random variable with mean A and probability mass function:

• mean: A
• variance: A

## 2. Binomial Approximate Poisson

Let be an indicator variable of either 0 or 1. And assume for all i. Then .
Based on the assumptions, we have a binomial distribution:
=
= (A Poisson random variable)

## 3. Example

.
is approximately Poisson with mean 400/365
Then

## 4. Priliminary Definitions

Def : A stochastic process is a collection of random variable (RV) indexed by time .

• If T is continuous set, the process is a continuous time stochastic process (e.g., Poisson Process)
• If T is countable, then the process is a discrete time stochastic process (e.g., Markov chain)
Def. A counting process is a stochastic process such that
• (that is, N(t) is non-negative integer)
• If , the ( that is, N(t) is non-decreasing in t)
• For , is the number of events occurring in the time interval .
Def: A counting process has stationary increments if the distribution of the number of events in an interval depends on the length of the interval, but not on the starting point of the interval. That is, does not depend on s. Intuitively, the interval can be “slide” around without changing its stochastic nature.

# Computing Expectation by Conditioning

• Basic Idea: Compute the expectation or variance of a (complicated)  random variable by conditioning on another random variable.
• In stochastic process, it is often useful to condition on the first event
• Use of the formula

Example:

# Exponential Distribution and Properties

## 1. Definition

• Probability function: ,
• Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF): ,
• Complement of the CDF (CCDF): , .

## 2. Memoryless Property

Def`1: A random variable X has the memoryless property if

Def`2A random variable X has the memoryless property if

The exponential distribution is the only distribution that has the memoryless property (Satisfy definition 2)

## 3. Useful Properties: First occurrence among events

Assume are exponential variable with rate .
Then what is the probability that .

More generally

## 4. Distribution of time of first event

This is the CDF of an exponential RV with rate , therefore
~

# Excess Distribution of Renewal Process

## Excess Distribution of Renewal Process

– Course notes of Stochastic Process, 2014 Fall

### 1. Definition

Excess of renewal process is defined as (time until next event)
In the example of average time waiting bus, we drived

Now we are going to derive for a random .
Interpretation: You show up “at random”. What is the probability that you wait more than x for the next event?

### 2. Derivation of

As we want to determine the fraction of time that
Let if , and let otherwise.
Interpretation: Fraction of time that = Fraction of “on” time for
Let be “on” time during cycle , then
• if
• otherwise

Note: the ON time and OFF time for each cycle are dependent. A longer ON time implies a shorter OFF time.
Then we have
=
=
=
Since is an alternating renewal process, fraction of “on” time is
This is sometimes called equilibrium distribution,

### 3. Example of different distribution of

Example: ~ exp
=
As expected (by memoryless property), excess distribution is an exponential distribution.
Example: Pareto Distribution
is also called the tail distribution
Some properties: (mean only exist if
Example: Deterministic
– Assume if , otherwise .
=
=
This is the CCDF of a uniform distribution on .
Note: the above assume that , If , then the result is 0.

# Alternating Renewal Process

## Alternating Renewal Process

### 1. Definition

Consider a process with “on” periods and “off” periods
• Let ON time of cycle j
• Let OFF time of cycle j
Then and must satisfy the following property in order for to be regenerative
The pair must be i.i.d; in particular, independent of for . That is
• are i.i.d
• are i.i.d
• However, and may be independent for the same j
Cycle time .
Then by the regenerative process, we have
the average “up” time =

### 2. Example

Cars pass a point on highway according to Poisson process with rate . of cars are speeding (>10 mph over the pretend speed limit). Assume time to issue a ticket~UNIF[10,14] minutes(one officer)
Question: What fraction of speeding cars pass when the officer is busy.
Answer: The answer to the question is equivalent to the fraction of time the officer is busy.
• Let =  time spent waiting to give a ticker
• Let = time spent giving a ticker
Speeders arrive according to Poisson process with rate per min.
Fraction of time busy =

# [Stochastic Process] Black-Scholes Formula

## 1. Introduction

Motivation: Find the cost of buying options to prevent arbitrage opportunity.
Definition: Let be the price of a stock at time s, considered on a time horizon . The  following actions are available:
• At any time s, , you can buy or sell shares of stock for
• At time , there are N options available. The cost of option is per option which allows you to purchase share at time for price .
Objective: the goal is to determine so that no arbitrage opportunity exists.
Approach: By the arbitrage theorem, this requires finding a probability measure so that each bet has zero expected pay off.

We try the following probability measure on : suppose that is geometric Brownian motion. That is, , where .

## 2. Analyze Bet 0: Purchase 1 share of stock at time s

Now, we consider a discount factor . Then, the expected present value of the stock at time t is

Choose such that

Then .

Thus the expected present value of the stock at t equals the present value of the stock when it is purchased at time s. That is, the discount rate exactly equals to the expected rate of the stock returns.

## 3. Analyze Bet i: Purchase 1 share of option i (at time s =0)

First, we drop the subscript i to simplify notation.

Expected present value of the return on this bet is

=

Setting this equal to zero implies that

=

has value 0 when , i.e., when

Thus the integral becomes

=

Now, apply a change of variables:
, i.e.,

## 4. Summary

No arbitrage exists if we find costs and a probability distribution such that expected outcome of every bet is 0.
• If we suppose that the stock price follow geometric Brownian motion and we choose the option costs according to the above formula, then the expected outcome of every bet is 0.
• Note: the stock price does not actually need to follow geometric Brownian motion. We are saying that if stock price follow Brownian motion, then the expected outcome of very bet would be 0, so no arbitrage exists.
A few sanity checks
• When , cost of option is
• When , cost of option is
• As t increases, c increases
• As k increases, c decreases
• As increases, c increases
• As increase, c increase (assuming )
• As , c decreases